Neurofeedback, Self-regulation & Mindfulness Training
Neuromodulation means modification of the neurocognitive state of a person. We neuromodulate when we become
fatigued, or excited, or when we train a skill such as meditation. In one session of transcranial direct current
stimulation (tDCS) we can enhance the excitability of a region of cortex such as the dorsolateral frontal cortex which
may be underactive in depressed individuals. We can also enhance the excitability of a region of cortex using
neurofeedback (NFB). Typically in NFB the client’s brain is exposed to information about its internal states and
timing. Certain state changes are signaled by sensory feedback so that neuromodulation might be operantly
conditioned by the clinician. NFB may take longer than tDCS to achieve neuromodulation of excitability, but it
includes training of a variety of state changes. Typically mindfulness meditation takes longer than NFB, but in the
end some practitioners can rapidly activate gamma in different cortical regions as needed .
This website and its companion, Cortexercise, discuss technology-assisted self-regulation (TASR), or technology-
assisted self-realization if you prefer.
 Lehmann D, et al (2001) - Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self. Psychiatry
Research: Neuroimaging Section 108 2001, 111-121